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I don’t know how Carthage managed to fight so brilliantly and expand so much with such an outdated army, but they put on a performance to be proud of. And thanks for their amphibious elephant squadrons, they spent much of their existence holding land in Europe.

Ultimately, their conquest of Bilbais was a Pyrrhic victory – a case of winning the battle but losing the war. Fighting the Ayyubids and an enormously strong Ethiopia at the same time, Carthage was only kept safe by the fact that their enemies didn’t have open borders with each other. Once Bilbais was in Carthaginian possession and a border was created with Ethiopia, nothing could stop Haile Selassie’s troops from pouring into their homeland, and even the most outdated army they could muster would not save them.